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Provinces of Indonesia. Capital : Jakarta. Homo sapiens reached the region by around 45, years ago. Austronesian people form the majority of the modern population.

Some of these practices remain in areas including the Batak areas of Sumatra, Toraja in Sulawesi, and several islands in Nusa Tenggara.

Early Indonesians were animists who honoured the spirits of the dead believing their souls or life force could still help the living.

Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE, [13] allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the 1st century CE.

These kingdoms little more than collections of villages subservient to petty chieftains evolved with their own ethnic and tribal religions.

Java's hot and even temperature, abundant rain and volcanic soil, was perfect for wet rice cultivation. Such agriculture required a well-organized society, in contrast to the society based on dry-field rice , which is a much simpler form of cultivation that does not require an elaborate social structure to support it.

In 11 December , a team of researchers led by Dr. Indonesia like much of Southeast Asia was influenced by Indian culture. In India 's earliest epic, the Ramayana , Sugriva, the chief of Rama 's army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa, the island of Java, in search of Sita.

South Indian culture was spread to Southeast Asia by the south Indian Pallava dynasty in the 4th and 5th centuries.

A number of Hindu and Buddhist states flourished and then declined across Indonesia. Three rough plinths dating from the beginning of the 4th century are found in Kutai , East Kalimantan , near Mahakam River.

The plinths bear an inscription in the Pallava script of India reading "A gift to the Brahmin priests". One such early kingdom was Tarumanagara , which flourished between and CE.

Located in West Java close to modern-day Jakarta , its 5th-century King, Purnawarman , established the earliest known inscriptions in Java , the Ciaruteun inscription located near Bogor.

And other inscriptions called the Pasar Awi inscription and the Muncul inscription. On this monument, King Purnawarman inscribed his name and made an imprint of his footprints, as well as his elephant's footprints.

The accompanying inscription reads, "Here are the footprints of King Purnavarman, the heroic conqueror of the world". This inscription is written in Pallava script and in Sanskrit and is still clear after years.

Purnawarman apparently built a canal that changed the course of the Cakung River, and drained a coastal area for agriculture and settlement purpose.

In his stone inscriptions, Purnawarman associated himself with Vishnu , and Brahmins ritually secured the hydraulic project. Around the same period, in the 6th to 7th centuries, the Kalingga Kingdom was established in Central Java northern coast, mentioned in Chinese account.

The political history of Indonesian archipelago during the 7th to 11th centuries was dominated by Srivijaya based in Sumatra and Sailendra that dominated southeast Asia based in Java and constructed Borobudur , the largest Buddhist monument in the world.

The history prior of the 14th and 15th centuries is not well known due to the scarcity of evidence. By the 15th century, two major states dominated this period; Majapahit in East Java, the greatest of the pre-Islamic Indonesian states, and Malacca on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula , arguably one of the greatest of the Muslim trading empires, [27] this marked the rise of Muslim states in the Indonesian archipelago.

Medang Empire , sometimes referred to as Mataram [28] , was an Indianized kingdom based in Central Java around modern-day Yogyakarta between the 8th and 10th centuries.

The kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra dynasty, and later by the Sanjaya dynasty. An eruption of the volcano Mount Merapi in , and political pressure from Sailendrans based in the Srivijaya Empire may have caused the move.

The first king of Mataram , Sri Sanjaya , left inscriptions in stone. Dharmawangsa ordered the translation of the Mahabharata into Old Javanese in In the period CE - CE, the kingdom saw the blossoming of classical Javanese art and architecture.

A rapid increase in temple construction occurred across the landscape of its heartland in Mataram Kedu and Kewu Plain. Later in its history, the dynasty divided into two dynasties based on their own religion, the Buddhist and Shivaist dynasties.

Civil war was unavoidable and the outcome was Medang Empire divided into two powerful kingdom based on region and religion. The hostility between them didn't end until in when the Sailendran based in Srivijaya kingdom incited rebellion by Wurawari, vassal of Medang kingdom and sacked Shivaist dynasty's capital in Watugaluh , Java.

Srivijaya kingdom rose into undisputed hegemonic Empire in the era as the result. Yet the Shivaist dynasty survived and successfully reclaimed the east Java in then descended to Kahuripan kingdom led by Airlangga son of Udayana of Bali.

Srivijaya was an ethnic Malay kingdom on Sumatra which influenced much of the Maritime Southeast Asia. From the 7th century, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.

Srivijaya was centred in the coastal trading centre of present-day Palembang. Srivijaya was not a "state" in the modern sense with defined boundaries and a centralised government to which the citizens own allegiance.

Trade was the driving force of Srivijaya just as it is for most societies throughout history. By the 7th century, the harbours of various vassal states of Srivijaya lined both coasts of the Straits of Melaka.

Dominating the Malacca and Sunda straits , the empire controlled both the Spice Route traffic and local trade. It remained a formidable sea power until the 13th century.

A stronghold of Vajrayana Buddhism , Srivijaya attracted pilgrims and scholars from other parts of Asia. Srivijayan influence waned by the 11th century.

The island was in frequent conflict with the Javanese kingdoms, first Singhasari and then Majapahit. Islam eventually made its way to the Aceh region of Sumatra, spreading its influence through contacts with Arabs and Indian traders.

By the late 13th century, the kingdom of Pasai in northern Sumatra converted to Islam. The last inscription dates to , where a crown prince, Ananggavarman, is mentioned.

Srivijaya ceased to exist by , when Parameswara , the kingdom's last prince, fled to Temasik, then to Malacca.

Later his son converted to Islam and founded the Sultanate of Malacca on the Malay peninsula. Despite a lack of historical evidence, it is known that Majapahit was the most dominant of Indonesia's pre-Islamic states.

The founder of the Majapahit Empire, Kertarajasa , was the son-in-law of the ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, also based in Java. After Singhasari drove Srivijaya out of Java in , the rising power of Singhasari came to the attention of Kublai Khan in China and he sent emissaries demanding tribute.

Kertanagara , ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, refused to pay tribute and the Khan sent a punitive expedition which arrived off the coast of Java in By that time, a rebel from Kediri , Jayakatwang, had killed Kertanagara.

The Majapahit founder allied himself with the Mongols against Jayakatwang and, once the Singhasari kingdom was destroyed, turned and forced his Mongol allies to withdraw in confusion.

Gajah Mada , an ambitious Majapahit prime minister and regent from to , extended the empire's rule to the surrounding islands.

A few years after Gajah Mada's death, the Majapahit navy captured Palembang, putting an end to the Srivijayan kingdom.

Although the Majapahit rulers extended their power over other islands and destroyed neighbouring kingdoms, their focus seems to have been on controlling and gaining a larger share of the commercial trade that passed through the archipelago.

About the time Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and proselytisers began entering the area. After its peak in the 14th century, Majapahit power began to decline and was unable to control the rising power of the Sultanate of Malacca.

Dates for the end of the Majapahit Empire range from to A large number of courtiers, artisans, priests, and members of the royal family moved east to the island of Bali at the end of Majapahit power.

The earliest accounts of the Indonesian archipelago date from the Abbasid Caliphate , according to those early accounts the Indonesian archipelago were famous among early Muslim sailors mainly due to its abundance of precious spice trade commodities such as nutmeg , cloves , galangal and many other spices.

Although Muslim traders first travelled through South East Asia early in the Islamic era, the spread of Islam among the inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra.

Other Indonesian areas gradually adopted Islam, making it the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java.

In the eastern archipelago, both Christian and Islamic missionaries were active in the 16th and 17th centuries, and, currently, there are large communities of both religions on these islands.

According to Javanese records, Kyai Gedhe Pamanahan became the ruler of the Mataram area in the s with the support of the kingdom of Pajang to the east, near the current site of Surakarta Solo.

Pamanahan was often referred to as Kyai Gedhe Mataram after his ascension. Pamanahan's son, Panembahan Senapati Ingalaga , replaced his father on the throne around Under Senapati the kingdom grew substantially through regular military campaigns against Mataram's neighbours.

Shortly after his accession, for example, he conquered his father's patrons in Pajang. The reign of Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak c.

Dutch activities at the time were limited to trading from limited coastal settlements, so their interactions with the inland Mataram kingdom were limited, although they did form an alliance against Surabaya in Krapyak died that year.

Krapyak was succeeded by his son, who is known simply as Sultan Agung "Great Sultan " in Javanese records.

Agung was responsible for the great expansion and lasting historical legacy of Mataram due to the extensive military conquests of his long reign from to This was accompanied by Muslim preachers and the adoption of Islam amongst the local population.

At its peak in the first half of the 17th century, the Sultanate lasted from to AD. The Sultanate left many archaeological remains and historical records.

Beginning in the 16th century, successive waves of Europeans—the Portuguese , Spanish, Dutch and British—sought to dominate the spice trade at its sources in India and the 'Spice Islands' Maluku of Indonesia.

This meant finding a way to Asia to cut out Muslim merchants who, with their Venetian outlet in the Mediterranean , monopolised spice imports to Europe.

Astronomically priced at the time, spices were highly coveted not only to preserve and make poorly preserved meat palatable, but also as medicines and magic potions.

The arrival of Europeans in South East Asia is often regarded as the watershed moment in its history. Other scholars consider this view untenable, [49] arguing that European influence during the times of the early arrivals of the 16th and 17th centuries was limited in both area and depth.

This is in part due to Europe not being the most advanced or dynamic area of the world in the early 15th century. Rather, the major expansionist force of this time was Islam; in , for example, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople , while Islam continued to spread through Indonesia and the Philippines.

European influence, particularly that of the Dutch, would not have its greatest impact on Indonesia until the 18th and 19th centuries.

New found Portuguese expertise in navigation, shipbuilding and weaponry allowed them to make daring expeditions of exploration and expansion.

Starting with the first exploratory expeditions sent from newly conquered Malacca in , the Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive in Indonesia, and sought to dominate the sources of valuable spices [50] and to extend the Catholic Church's missionary efforts.

The Portuguese turned east to Maluku and through both military conquest and alliance with local rulers, they established trading posts, forts, and missions on the islands of Ternate , Ambon , and Solor among others.

The height of Portuguese missionary activities, however, came in the latter half of the 16th century. Ultimately, the Portuguese presence in Indonesia was reduced to Solor, Flores and Timor in modern-day Nusa Tenggara, following defeat at the hands of indigenous Ternateans and the Dutch in Maluku, and a general failure to maintain control of trade in the region.

The most significant impacts of the Portuguese arrival were the disruption and disorganisation of the trade network mostly as a result of their conquest of Malacca , and the first significant plantings of Christianity in Indonesia.

There have continued to be Christian communities in eastern Indonesia through to the present, which has contributed to a sense of shared interest with Europeans, particularly among the Ambonese.

In , the Dutch parliament awarded the VOC a monopoly on trade and colonial activities in the region at a time before the company controlled any territory in Java.

The VOC became deeply involved in the internal politics of Java in this period, and fought in a number of wars involving the leaders of Mataram and Banten.

The Dutch followed the Portuguese aspirations, courage, brutality, and strategies but brought better organisation, weapons, ships, and superior financial backing.

Although they failed to gain complete control of the Indonesian spice trade, they had much more success than the previous Portuguese efforts.

They exploited the factionalisation of the small kingdoms in Java that had replaced Majapahit, establishing a permanent foothold in Java, from which grew a land-based colonial empire which became one of the richest colonial possessions on earth.

By the midth century, Batavia, the headquarter of VOC in Asia, had become an important trade centre in the region. It had repelled attacks from the Javanese Mataram kingdom.

Sumatran ports were also brought under VOC control and the last of the Portuguese were expelled in In return for monopoly control over the pepper trade and the expulsion of the British, the Dutch helped the son of the ruler of Banten overthrow his father in By the 18th century, the VOC has established themselves firmly in Indonesian archipelago, controlling inter-island trade as part of their Asian business which includes India, Ceylon, Formosa, and Japan.

After the fall of the Netherlands to the First French Empire and the dissolution of the Dutch East India Company in , there were profound changes in the European colonial administration of the East Indies.

Meanwhile, Europe was devastated by the Napoleonic Wars. In the Netherlands, Napoleon Bonaparte in oversaw the dissolution of the Batavian Republic , which was replaced by the Kingdom of Holland , a French puppet kingdom ruled by Napoleon's third brother Louis Bonaparte Lodewijk Napoleon.

The East Indies were treated as a proxy French colony, administrated through a Dutch intermediary. Daendels was sent to strengthen Javanese defences against a predicted British invasion.

Since , the British had had a presence in Bencoolen on the western coast of Sumatra, as well as several posts north of the Malaccan straits.

The thousand-kilometre road was meant as to ease logistics across Java and was completed in only one year, during which thousands of Javanese forced labourers died.

Raffles carried further the administrative centralisation previously initiated by Daendels. During his administration, numbers of ancient monuments in Java were rediscovered, excavated and systematically catalogued for the first time, the most important one is the rediscovery of Borobudur Buddhist temple in Central Java.

Raffles was an enthusiast of the island's history, as he wrote the book History of Java published later in In , the island of Java was returned to control of the Netherlands following the end of Napoleonic Wars, under the terms of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of A Javanese uprising was crushed in the Java War of — After , a system of forced cultivations and indentured labour was introduced on Java, the Cultivation System in Dutch: cultuurstelsel.

This system brought the Dutch and their Indonesian allies enormous wealth. The cultivation system tied peasants to their land, forcing them to work in government-owned plantations for 60 days of the year.

The system was abolished in a more liberal period after In , the Dutch adopted what they called the Ethical Policy , which included somewhat increased investment in indigenous education, and modest political reforms.

The Dutch colonials formed a privileged upper social class of soldiers, administrators, managers, teachers, and pioneers.

They lived together with the "natives", but at the top of a rigid social and racial caste system. A third class, Foreign Easterners, was added in Upgrading the infrastructure of ports and roads was a high priority for the Dutch, with the goal of modernising the economy, pumping wages into local areas, facilitating commerce, and speeding up military movements.

These Dutch constructed public works became the economic base of the colonial state; after independence, they became the basis of the Indonesian infrastructure.

For most of the colonial period, Dutch control over its territories in the Indonesian archipelago was tenuous.

In some cases, Dutch police and military actions in parts of Indonesia were quite cruel. Recent discussions, for example, of Dutch cruelty in Aceh have encouraged renewed research on these aspects of Dutch rule.

The Indonesian government declared the territory an Indonesian province but relinquished it in In October , the first nationalist movement was formed, Budi Utomo.

The nationalist leaders came from a small group of young professionals and students, some of whom had been educated in the Netherlands.

In the post—World War I era, the Indonesian communists who were associated with the Third International started to usurp the nationalist movement.

This repression led to a growth of the PKI. By December , the PKI had a membership of 1, Sukarno was released from prison in December [71] but was re-arrested on 1 August The Japanese invasion and subsequent occupation during World War II ended Dutch rule [73] [74] and encouraged the previously suppressed Indonesian independence movement.

Negotiations with the Japanese aimed at securing supplies of aviation fuel collapsed in June , and the Japanese started their conquest of Southeast Asia in December of that year.

The last Dutch forces were defeated by Japan in March In July , Sukarno accepted Japan's offer to rally the public in support of the Japanese war effort.

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta were decorated by the Emperor of Japan in However, experience of the Japanese occupation of Dutch East Indies varied considerably, depending upon where one lived and one's social position.

Many who lived in areas considered important to the war effort experienced torture , sex slavery , arbitrary arrest and execution, and other war crimes.

Thousands taken away from Indonesia as war labourers romusha suffered or died as a result of ill-treatment and starvation. People of Dutch and mixed Dutch-Indonesian descent were particular targets of the Japanese occupation.

The committee drafted the Constitution , which remains in force, though now much amended. They were told that Japan intended to announce Indonesian independence on 24 August.

After the Japanese surrender, however, Sukarno unilaterally proclaimed Indonesian independence on 17 August. A later UN report stated that four million people died in Indonesia as a result of the Japanese occupation.

Under pressure from radical and politicised pemuda 'youth' groups, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed Indonesian independence on 17 August , two days after the Japanese Emperor's surrender in the Pacific.

The Dutch, initially backed by the British, tried to re-establish their rule, [84] and a bitter armed and diplomatic struggle ended in December , when in the face of international pressure, [85] the Dutch formally recognised Indonesian independence.

At the end of World War II, a power vacuum arose, and the nationalists often succeeded in seizing the arms of the demoralised Japanese. A period of unrest with city guerrilla warfare called the Bersiap period ensued.

Groups of Indonesian nationalists armed with improvised weapons like bamboo spears and firearms attacked returning Allied troops. After returning to Java, Dutch forces quickly re-occupied the colonial capital of Batavia now Jakarta , so the city of Yogyakarta in central Java became the capital of the nationalist forces.

Negotiations with the nationalists led to two major truce agreements, but disputes about their implementation, and much mutual provocation, led each time to renewed conflict.

Within four years the Dutch had recaptured almost the whole of Indonesia, but guerrilla resistance persisted, led on Java by commander Nasution.

On 17 August , exactly five years after the proclamation of independence, the last of the federal states were dissolved and Sukarno proclaimed a single unitary Republic of Indonesia.

With the unifying struggle to secure Indonesia's independence over, divisions in Indonesian society began to appear.

These included regional differences in customs, religion, the impact of Christianity and Marxism, and fears of Javanese political domination. Following colonial rule, Japanese occupation, and war against the Dutch, the new country suffered from severe poverty, a ruinous economy, low educational and skills levels, and authoritarian traditions.

In contrast to the Constitution , the constitution mandated a parliamentary system of government, an executive responsible to parliament, and stipulated at length constitutional guarantees for human rights, drawing heavily on the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

The long-postponed parliamentary elections were held in ; although the Indonesian National Party PNI —considered Sukarno's party—topped the poll, and the Communist Party of Indonesia PKI received strong support, no party garnered more than a quarter of the votes, which resulted in short-lived coalitions.

By , Sukarno was openly criticising parliamentary democracy, stating that it was "based upon inherent conflict" which ran counter to Indonesian notions of harmony as being the natural state of human relationships.

Instead, he sought a system based on the traditional village system of discussion and consensus, under the guidance of village elders.

He proposed a threefold blend of nasionalisme 'nationalism' , agama 'religion' , and komunisme 'communism' into a co-operative ' Nas-A-Kom ' government.

With the support of the military, he proclaimed in February a system of ' Guided Democracy ', and proposed a cabinet representing all the political parties of importance including the PKI.

Sukarno abrogated the Constitution on 9 July by a decree dissolving the Constitutional Assembly and restoring the Constitution.

Another non-elected body, the Supreme Advisory Council, was the main policy development body, while the National Front was set up in September and presided over by the president to "mobilise the revolutionary forces of the people".

Charismatic Sukarno spoke as a romantic revolutionary, and under his increasingly authoritarian rule, Indonesia moved on a course of stormy nationalism.

Sukarno was popularly referred to as bung "older brother" , and he painted himself as a man of the people carrying the aspirations of Indonesia and one who dared take on the West.

Western New Guinea had been part of the Dutch East Indies, and Indonesian nationalists had thus claimed it on this basis.

Indonesia was able to instigate a diplomatic and military confrontation with the Dutch over the territory following an Indonesian-Soviet arms agreement in It was, however, United States pressure on the Netherlands that led to an Indonesian takeover in The northern states of Borneo, formerly British Sarawak and Sabah , had wavered in joining Malaysia, whilst Indonesia saw itself as the rightful ruler of Austronesian peoples and supported an unsuccessful revolution attempt in Brunei.

As the PKI rallied in Jakarta streets in support, the West became increasingly alarmed at Indonesian foreign policy and the United States withdrew its aid to Indonesia.

In social policy, Sukarno's time in office witnessed substantial reforms in health and education, [93] together with the passage of various pro-labour measures.

Severe poverty and hunger were widespread. Described as the great dalang "puppet master" , Sukarno's position depended on balancing the opposing and increasingly hostile forces of the army and the PKI.

Sukarno's anti-imperialist ideology saw Indonesia increasingly dependent on Soviet and then communist China.

Penetrating all levels of government, the party increasingly gained influence at the expense of the army. On 30 September , six of the most senior generals within the military and other officers were executed in an attempted coup.

The insurgents, known later as the 30 September Movement , backed a rival faction of the army and took up positions in the capital, later seizing control of the national radio station.

They claimed they were acting against a plot organised by the generals to overthrow Sukarno. Within a few hours, Major General Suharto , commander of the Army Strategic Reserve Kostrad , mobilised counteraction, and by the evening of 1 October, it was clear that the coup, which had little co-ordination and was largely limited to Jakarta, had failed.

Complicated and partisan theories continue to this day over the identity of the attempted coup's organisers and their aims. According to the Indonesian army, the PKI were behind the coup and used disgruntled army officers to carry it out, and this became the official account of Suharto's subsequent New Order administration.

Most historians agree [ citation needed ] that the coup and the surrounding events were not led by a single mastermind controlling all events, and that the full truth will never likely be known.

The PKI was blamed for the coup, and anti-communists, initially following the army's lead, went on a violent anti-communist purge across much of the country.

The PKI was effectively destroyed, [97] [98] [99] and the most widely accepted estimates are that between , and 1 million were killed. The PKI was outlawed and possibly more than 1 million of its leaders and affiliates were imprisoned.

Throughout the —66 period, President Sukarno attempted to restore his political position and shift the country back to its pre-October position but his Guided Democracy balancing act was destroyed with the PKI's demise.

Although he remained president, the weakened Sukarno was forced to transfer key political and military powers to General Suharto , who by that time had become head of the armed forces.

Suharto was formally appointed president in March Sukarno lived under virtual house arrest until his death in In the aftermath of Suharto's rise, hundreds of thousands of people were killed or imprisoned by the military and religious groups in a backlash against alleged communist supporters, with direct support from the United States.

However, Suharto enriched himself and his family through business dealings and widespread corruption. At the time of independence, the Dutch retained control over the western half of New Guinea also known as West Irian , and permitted steps towards self-government and a declaration of independence on 1 December After negotiations with the Dutch on the incorporation of the territory into Indonesia failed, an Indonesian paratroop invasion 18 December preceded armed clashes between Indonesian and Dutch troops in and In the United States pressured the Netherlands into secret talks with Indonesia which in August produced the New York Agreement , and Indonesia assumed administrative responsibility for West Irian on 1 May Rather than a referendum of all residents of West Irian as had been agreed under Sukarno, an ' Act of Free Choice ' was conducted in in which 1, Papuan representatives of local councils were selected by the Indonesians.

They were warned to vote in favour of Indonesian integration with the group unanimously voting for integration with Indonesia. West Irian was renamed Irian Jaya 'glorious Irian' in Opposition to Indonesian administration of Irian Jaya later known as Papua gave rise to guerrilla activity in the years following Jakarta's assumption of control.

In , the Carnation Revolution in Portugal caused authorities there to announce plans for decolonisation of Portuguese Timor , the eastern half of the island of Timor whose western half was a part of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara.

In the East Timorese elections held in , Fretilin , a left-leaning party, and UDT , aligned with the local elite, emerged as the largest parties, having previously formed an alliance to campaign for independence from Portugal.

Apodeti , a party advocating integration with Indonesia, enjoyed little popular support. Indonesia alleged that Fretilin was communist, and feared that an independent East Timor would influence separatism in the archipelago.

Indonesian military intelligence influenced the break-up of the alliance between Fretilin and UDT, which led to a coup by the UDT on 11 August and the start of a month-long civil war.

During this time, the Portuguese government effectively abandoned the territory and did not resume the decolonisation process.

Nine days later, on 7 December, Indonesia invaded East Timor , eventually annexing the tiny country of then , people.

Indonesia was supported materially and diplomatically by the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom, who regarded Indonesia as an anti-communist ally.

Following the resignation of Suharto , the people of East Timor voted overwhelmingly for independence in a UN-sponsored referendum held on 30 August After the result was announced, elements of the Indonesian military and its militia retaliated by killing approximately 2, East Timorese, displacing two-thirds of the population, raping hundreds of women and girls, and destroying much of the country's infrastructure.

The Transmigration program Transmigrasi was a National Government initiative to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia such as Java and Bali to less populous areas of the country including Papua , Kalimantan , Sumatra , and Sulawesi.

The stated purpose of this program was to reduce the considerable poverty and overpopulation on Java, to provide opportunities for hard-working poor people, and to provide a workforce to better utilise the resources of the outer islands.

The program, however, has been controversial, with critics accusing the Indonesian Government of trying to use these migrants to reduce the proportion of native populations in destination areas to weaken separatist movements.

The program has often been cited as a major and ongoing factor in controversies and even conflict and violence between settlers and indigenous populations.

In Suharto undertook efforts to pre-empt a challenge to the New Order government. The Indonesian Democratic Party PDI , a legal party that had traditionally propped up the regime, had changed direction and began to assert its independence.

Suharto fostered a split over the leadership of PDI, backing a co-opted faction loyal to deputy speaker of the People's Representative Council Suryadi against a faction loyal to Megawati Sukarnoputri , the daughter of Sukarno and the PDI's chairperson.

After the Suryadi faction announced a party congress to sack Megawati would be held in Medan on 20—22 June, Megawati proclaimed that her supporters would hold demonstrations in protest.

The Suryadi faction went through with its sacking of Megawati, and the demonstrations manifested themselves throughout Indonesia. This led to several confrontations on the streets between protesters and security forces, and recriminations over the violence.

The protests culminated in the military allowing Megawati's supporters to take over PDI headquarters in Jakarta, with a pledge of no further demonstrations.

Suharto allowed the occupation of PDI headquarters to go on for almost a month, as attentions were also on Jakarta due to a set of high-profile ASEAN meetings scheduled to take place there.

Capitalizing on this, Megawati supporters organised "democracy forums" with several speakers at the site. On 26 July, officers of the military, Suryadi, and Suharto openly aired their disgust with the forums.

On 27 July, police, soldiers, and persons claiming to be Suryadi supporters stormed the headquarters. Several Megawati supporters were killed, and over two hundred people were arrested and tried under the Anti-Subversion and Hate-Spreading laws.

The day would become known as "Black Saturday" and mark the beginning of a renewed crackdown by the New Order government against supporters of democracy, now called the " Reformasi " or Reform movement.

In and , Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the Asian financial crisis , [] which had dire consequences for the Indonesian economy and society, as well as Suharto's presidency.

At the same time, the country suffered a severe drought and some of the largest forest fires in history burned in Kalimantan and Sumatra. The rupiah , the Indonesian currency, took a sharp dive in value.

Suharto came under scrutiny from international lending institutions, chiefly the World Bank , International Monetary Fund IMF and the United States, over longtime embezzlement of funds and some protectionist policies.

In December, Suharto's government signed a letter of intent to the IMF, pledging to enact austerity measures, including cuts to public services and removal of subsidies , in return for aid from the IMF and other donors.

Prices for goods such as kerosene and rice, as well as fees for public services including education, rose dramatically.

The effects were exacerbated by widespread corruption. The austerity measures approved by Suharto had started to erode domestic confidence with the New Order [] and led to popular protests.

Suharto stood for re-election by parliament for the seventh time in March , justifying it on the grounds of the necessity of his leadership during the crisis.

The parliament approved a new term. This sparked protests and riots throughout the country, now termed the Indonesian Revolution.

Dissent within the ranks of his own Golkar party and the military finally weakened Suharto, and on 21 May he stood down from power. President Habibie quickly assembled a cabinet.

One of its main tasks was to re-establish International Monetary Fund and donor community support for an economic stabilisation program.

He moved quickly to release political prisoners and lift some controls on freedom of speech and association. Elections for the national, provincial, and sub-provincial parliaments were held on 7 June The May riots of Indonesia also known as the tragedy or simply the event, were incidents of mass violence, demonstrations, and civil unrest of a racial nature that occurred throughout Indonesia.

Wahid named his first Cabinet in early November and a reshuffled, second Cabinet in August President Wahid's government continued to pursue democratisation and to encourage renewed economic growth under challenging conditions.

In addition to continuing economic malaise, his government faced regional, interethnic, and interreligious conflict, particularly in Aceh , the Maluku Islands , and Irian Jaya.

In West Timor , the problems of displaced East Timorese and violence by pro-Indonesian East Timorese militias caused considerable humanitarian and social problems.

An increasingly assertive Parliament frequently challenged President Wahid's policies and prerogatives, contributing to a lively and sometimes rancorous national political debate.

During the People's Consultative Assembly's first annual session in August , President Wahid gave an account of his government's performance.

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As a general rule of thumb, the more boring the profile, the more boring the person. Without further ado, here are my detailed reviews of the top five dating sites and apps in Indonesia.

IndonesianCupid is the best dating site in Indonesia. No other site has found that good balance between quality, size of membership, and affordability.

IndonesianCupid is part of the Cupid Media Network, and thus sports the same clean website design, easy sign-up process, and great communication features as other Cupid Media sites.

Unfortunately, IndonesianCupid seems to harbor a fair number of sketchy profiles, who will message you immediately after signing up, without visiting your profile.

Avoid these few bad eggs though, and you will enjoy using this site. Signing up is a pleasantly brief process, with only your Facebook account or your name, gender, password, and email required as a first step.

At this point, you can either finish filling out the rest of your profile or start searching for that perfect match right away. When you get around to finishing your profile, get ready to spend some time doing so, as there is a lot to fill out.

Some of the questions in the Personality Profile section are repeated from the Profile and Interest tabs though, which feels like an oversight.

When looking through your matches, you can view search results in four ways: photos only, photos and basic information, photos, basic information and a short blurb, and by full profiles.

You also have many options for narrowing down your search, including searching by: age, location, and education, body type, ethnicity, lifestyle choices smoking, drinking, etc.

However, if both of you are Standard members, neither of you will be able to speak to the other. The one upside here is that communication features as a premium member are fantastic.

Audio, video, and IM are all available, and have proven to be invaluable features for ensuring match compatibility before meeting in person. One of my favorite features on IndonesianCupid is the opportunity to filter who you receive messages from.

You have many filtering options, from age and location, to nationality, religion, ethnicity and more. While this feature will typically be more useful for women, as they tend to receive more messages than men on dating websites, I personally found this feature extremely useful for filtering out spam messages.

While the majority of users are from Japan, Thailand, Philippines and the nations around it, the site also attracts many users from Europe and the United States.

Most of the male users on the site are between the ages of 35 and 44 and fill up a majority of the premium accounts. Female users mostly have free accounts and range anywhere from 25 to years old.

You can sign up separately or through your Facebook account. All you need to do is fill out your basic profile information, such as age, gender, region, and other complimentary details, and then upload a photo so you will get more views, although it is not mandatory to upload one.

After your photo is uploaded and the sign-up process is complete, the AsianDating staff will review your profile and alert you when your profile has been approved and is ready for use.

Once your account is verified, you will receive a verification badge. On average, the process takes no more than a few hours.

AsianDating is great in that it allows you to elaborate on yourself and truly show your personality.

When you sign up, you can talk about your lifestyle, your cultural background, and your interests, and other users will see that when they view your profile.

It makes sending messages easy when you know a little bit about a person before messaging them.

AsianDating is easy to navigate. You can filter your results by age, gender, and region, and results will show up on your screen. There is also preference-based matching which are matches that show up on your screen when you log in based on your profile.

If AsianDating sees someone compatible, they will let you know. One problem could be finding very users around you. One of the caveats of AsianDating is you can only message someone else if you have a premium account or a person with a premium account messages you.

If you are a free member and contact someone that is also a free member, the message will be locked until one of you upgrades.

There are certain restrictions on AsianDating that only premium users can take advantage of. Some of the perks that come with a premium membership include the following:.

Tinder is a location-based app that lets its users swipe left or right to choose their matches. Users can see pictures and a bio of their fellow app users.

Millions of matches have been made since the app launched in The first step is to download the Tinder app from either the Apple or Android store.

Once you have the app on your phone, use your Facebook account to sign up for Tinder. While it is possible to find a workaround to sign up without a Facebook account, it is not possible to sign up without using your phone number.

This is a benefit to Tinder over other apps on the market. When you swipe right on someone, if they had already swiped right on your profile, a match is made.

You get a notification of the match, and a prompt to send them a message. You can return to this match later by going to the chat icon located in the top right portion of your screen.

Those appear on your home feed when you open the app. It is one of the few flaws of this platform.

Without a match, there are no messaging functions on Tinder. The lack of ability to communicate with other users is one of the more frustrating aspects of the app.

Tinder has three membership levels. There is a free plan plus two premium levels. Tinder Plus and Tinder Gold offer additional benefits to members such as ad-free swiping, unlimited swipes, ability to bring back someone you initially passed on, and many others.

No gimmicks, no tricks. Stop paying for online dating now. Join our site and meet single Indonesia men and single Indonesia women looking to meet quality singles for fun and dating in Indonesia.

Click on any of the cities in Indonesia below to meet members looking to chat with you. Bali Dating. Papua Dating. Aceh Atjeh Dating.

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